Exploration in europe

European exploration

He and his successors built up an enormous empire until, in the late 13th century, one of them, Kublai Khanreigned supreme from the Black Sea to the Yellow Sea. During the fifteenth and the sixteenth century the states of Europe began their modern exploration of the world with a series of sea voyages.

InGiovanni da Verrazano was commissioned to locate a northwest passage around North America to India. This was the first colonial war among European powers. Other areas of exploration and production in the region include Denmark and Norway.

Timeline of European exploration

Exact longitudehowever, remained elusive, and mariners struggled to determine it for centuries. The Age of Exploration provided the foundation for the European political and commercial worldwide imperialism of the late s.

He originally studied to be a Jesuit, but left the school to find adventure.

Age of Discovery

In Jean Ribault headed an expedition that explored the St. Inthe Portuguese established a claim to some cities Ceuta, Tangiers on what is today the Kingdom of Moroccoand in they began the systematic exploration of the west African coast.

About ten years later another trading company, the West India Company, settled groups of colonists on Manhattan Island and at Fort Orange. Though he is most remembered for helping command the English fleet against the Spanish Armadahe also spent many years in the Caribbean and successfully circumnavigated the world between He was born in Saint Malo, France in Portugal received the west African Coast and the Indian Ocean route to India, as well as part of the Pacific Ocean waterways, while Spain gained the Western Atlantic Ocean and the lands further to the west.

Bartolomeu Dias Bartolomeu Diasthe first European to sail around the Cape of Good Hopealso found that India was reachable by sailing around the coast of the continent.

As European powers conquered the territories of the New World, they justified wars against Native Americans and the destruction of their cultures as a fulfillment of the European secular and religious vision of the New World. No wonder that, when Europe learned of these things, it became enthralled.

European History/Exploration and Discovery

From the 8th to the 11th century bands of Northmen, mainly Swedish, trading southeastward across the Russian plains, were active under the name of Varangians in the ports of the Black Sea. He died in Saint Malo, inaged Ancient tales described distant civilizations, usually to the west, where European-like peoples lived simple, virtuous lives without war, famine, disease, or poverty.

These that were a combination of traditional European and Arab designs were the first ships that could leave the relatively passive Mediterranean and sail safely on the open Atlantic.

For celestial navigation the Portuguese used the Ephemerideswhich experienced a remarkable diffusion in the 15th century.

The sextant measured celestial objects in relation to the horizon, as opposed to measuring them in relation to the instrument.

Through decisive use of superior weapons and native assistance, also the help of European disease which had already wrecked native populations, successfully conquered the Aztecs capturing Montezuma IIthe current emperor, the city of Tenochtitlan and looting large amounts of Aztec gold. Most notably, the French engaged in the highly profitable fur trade, setting up trading outposts throughout Newfoundland, Maine, and regions farther west.

European History/Exploration and Discovery

To cope with oceanic voyages, European sailors adapted a ship known as the coglargely used in the Baltic and North Seawhich they improved by adding sail designs used in the Islamic world. We also have interests in seven nonoperated fields: He was followed in by Jacques Cartierwho explored the St.

It also led to the decimation and extinction of Natives in other nations due to European diseases and poor working conditions.

exploration & production in europe

Between and Frobisher as well as John Davis explored along the Atlantic coast. Protestantism emphasized a personal relationship between each individual and God without the need for intercession by the institutional church. Since it was east of the dividing line, he claimed it for Portugal and this was respected by the Spanish.

The silk and spice tradeinvolving spicesincenseherbsdrugs and opiummade these Mediterranean city-states phenomenally rich. Thus, with Ptolemy in one hand and Marco Polo in the other, the European explorers of the Age of Discovery set forth to try to reach Cathay and Cipango by new ways; Ptolemy promised that the way was short, and Marco Polo promised that the reward was great.

War, slavery, and starvation claimed many lives, but disease, especially smallpox, had the most devastating effect. Thus, there was a rise in Atlantic trading countries and a decline in Middle East and Mediterranean countries.

Ina papal decree granted all land south of the Canary Islands to Portugal, however, and the areas explored by Columbus were thus Portuguese territories. Setting out on June 2,the voyage went between the Siberian coast and Vaygach Island. In the next decade several captains at the service of Prince Henry — including the Genoese Antonio da Noli and Venetian Alvise Cadamosto — discovered the remaining islands which were occupied during the 15th century.

Eric Foner and John A. Sailing out into the open Atlantic the Madeira Islands were discovered in and in the Azores were discovered and both became Portuguese colonies. Alexander and his army crossed the mountains to the Indus valley and then made a westward march from the lower Indus to Susa through the desolate country along the southern edge of the Iranian plateau; Nearchushis admiral, in command of the naval forces of the expedition, waited for the favourable monsoon and then sailed from the mouth of the Indus to the mouth of the Euphrates, exploring the northern coast of the Persian Gulf on his way.

In particular, they were discovered by voyages launched by the command of Prince Henry the Navigator. The rediscovery of Roman geographical knowledge was a revelation, [17] both for mapmaking and worldview, [18] although reinforcing the idea that the Indian Ocean was landlocked.

The following timeline covers European exploration from to The 15th century witnessed the rounding of the feared Cape Bojador and Portuguese exploration of the west coast of Africa, while in the last decade of the century the Spanish sent expeditions to the New World, focusing on exploring the Caribbean Sea, and the Portuguese discovered the sea route to India.

During the fifteenth and the sixteenth century the states of Europe began their modern exploration of the world with a series of sea voyages. The Atlantic states of Spain and Portugal were foremost in this enterprise though other countries, notably England and the Netherlands, also took part.

The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

During the fifteenth and the sixteenth century the states of Europe began their modern exploration of the world with a series of sea voyages. The Atlantic states of Spain and Portugal were foremost in this enterprise though other countries, notably England and the Netherlands, also took part.

The Age of Exploration Though Columbus was not the first to discover the New World, his landing in the New World in is important: it ushered in an era of unprecedented European exploration and settlement of the Americas.

European exploration, exploration of regions of Earth for scientific, commercial, religious, military, and other purposes by Europeans, beginning about the 4th century bce. The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many.

Exploration in europe
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